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Outcome Summary General Anatomy and Physiology (A & P)

Title General Anatomy and Physiology (A & P)
Course Number 10806177
Credits 4
Organization Western Technical College
Developers WTCS Anatomy and Physiology Alignment Team
Development Date 12/10/2002
Revised by Kim Vosicky - WIDS Consultant with State A & P Faculty
Revised date 5/22/2010
Instructional Level Associate Degree Courses
Instructional Area Natural Science - 806
Division General Education
Department

Instructional Type Contact Hours Outside Hours Credits
 Laboratory  36  0  1
 Lecture  54  0  3

Description


Examines basic concepts of human A & P as they relate to health sciences.Using a body systems approach, the course emphasizes the interrelationships between structure and function at the gross & microscopic levels of organization of the entire human body. It is intended to prepare health care professionals who need to apply basic concepts of whole body A & P to informed decision-making & professional communication with colleagues & patients. (This course also provides the foundation, and is a prerequisite to Advanced Anatomy and Physiology).



Prerequisites


  • Prerequisite(s): HS Chem or Clg Chem (10806134, 10806128, 20806209 or 77856761) AND HS Bio or Clg Bio (77856760 or 20806236) AND reading scores ASSET 44+, ACT 20+, COMPASS 84+ or Clg Rdg 77858762. Fund of A&P is recommended as prereq.

Supplies

  • None

Core Abilities

  • Use effective communication skills
  • Apply mathematical concepts
  • Transfer social and natural science theories into practical applications
  • Demonstrate ability to think critically
  • Demonstrate ability to value self and work ethically with others in a diverse population
  • Use technology effectively
  • Make decisions that incorporate the importance of sustainability

Competency

1.  Apply descriptive, anatomical, physiological, and directional terminology to the human body and its organization


Criteria - Performance will be satisfactory when:

  • graphic, written or oral product/process includes anatomical terminology for the anatomical positions used
  • graphic, written or oral product/process includes directional terminology
  • graphic, written or oral product/process portrays the describes characteristics and sequences of homeostatic mechanisms
  • graphic, written or oral product/process describes location, structure, and function of body cavities and linings
  • graphic, written or oral product identifies body planes, sections, and regions
  • graphic, written or oral product accurately represents homeostatic mechanisms

Learning Objectives

  • Distinguish between anatomy and physiology.
  • Describe the anatomical position.
  • Describe the three major planes of the body or of an organ.
  • Identify the major body cavities and their subdivisions.
  • Identify the serous membranes that line the walls and cover the organs of each body cavity and the fluid found inside each cavity.
  • Describe two ways to subdivide the abdominal region.
  • Identify the quadrants of the abdominopelvic cavity.
  • Identify the nine abdominal regions.
  • Describe the axial and appendicular regions of the body and their subdivisions.
  • Use correct directional terms in the study of anatomy and physiology.
  • Describe the location of specific body organs.
  • Match locating terms with the correct descriptions.
  • Match body positions with the correct descriptions.
  • Define terms related to organization of the human body.
  • Define examples of homeostasis, negative and positive feedback systems.
  • Provide examples of homeostasis, negative and positive feedback systems.

2.  Classify the major chemical components of living things according to their structure and function


Criteria - Performance will be satisfactory when:

  • graphic, written or oral product or process includes all of the major chemical components
  • graphic, written or oral product or process correlates components according to structure, function, and the role it major chemical components plays in body composition
  • graphic, written or oral product uses appropriate terminology

Learning Objectives

  • Describe the structure of an atom.
  • Differentiate among an atom, molecule, compound, ion, and isotopes.
  • Describe the various types of chemical bonding.
  • List the body's inorganic compounds and their functions.
  • Explain the importance or water in living organisms.
  • Explain the importance of oxygen and carbon dioxide to living organisms.
  • Describe the body's major organic compounds and their functions.
  • Define enzymes.
  • Describe the role of enzymes in cellular metabolism.

3.  Characterize the basic structure and functions of the cell and its parts


Criteria - Performance will be satisfactory when:

  • written, graphic or oral product or process addresses major components of the cell
  • written, graphic or oral product or process identifies the major functional components of the cell
  • written, graphic or oral product or process identifies the major transport mechanisms of the cell membranes
  • written, graphic or oral product or process illustrates the relationships among the organelles of a cell

Learning Objectives

  • Define cytoplasm and organelle.
  • Describe the structure, function and relationship of all cell organelles.
  • Describe the structure of the cell membrane.
  • Describe the different modes of transport of substances across cell membranes.

4.  Identify how cells store and use energy


Criteria - Performance will be satisfactory when:

  • written, graphic, or oral product or process distinguishes between aerobic and anaerobic processes
  • written, graphic, or oral product or process shows metabolic pathways and their relationships to one another

Learning Objectives

  • Define metabolism.
  • Distinguish between catabolic and anabolic pathways.
  • Contrast aerobic and anaerobic respiration.
  • Describe the role of mitochondria in cellular metabolism.

5.  Analyze the role of DNA in controlling cell functions


Criteria - Performance will be satisfactory when:

  • written, graphic or oral product or process shows the structure of DNA, RNA, and chromosomes
  • written, graphic or oral product or process illustrates the cell cycle
  • written, graphic or oral product or process includes a clear description of how DNA and RNA differ
  • written, graphic or oral product or process explains the functional relationship between DNA, RNA, and chromosomes

Learning Objectives

  • Describe the structure and function of DNA, RNA, and chromosomes.
  • Describe the stages of a cell cycle.
  • Relate DNA replication to the cell cycle.

6.  Correlate the structure of tissues with their functions


Criteria - Performance will be satisfactory when:

  • written, graphic or oral product or process identifies the tissue-based upon the structural components
  • written, graphic or oral product or process distinguishes mong the four types of tissues
  • written, graphic or oral product or process relates structural components with tissue functions

Learning Objectives

  • Identify the microscopic anatomy of body tissues.
  • List the characteristics of each tissue type.
  • List the functions of each tissue type.
  • Give examples of the locations of each tissue type in the body.

7.  Analyze how components of the integumentary system function in the body


Criteria - Performance will be satisfactory when:

  • written, graphic or oral product or process identifies the structural components of the integumentary system
  • written, graphic or oral product or process correlates the structural components of the integumentary system with their functions
  • written, graphic or oral product or process identifies the major chemical secretions of the integumentary system
  • written, graphic or oral product or process illustrates the relationships among the components of the integumentary system
  • written, graphic or oral product or process summaries the functions of the integumentary system

Learning Objectives

  • Compare the structures and functions of the layers of the skin.
  • Describe the events occuring during keratinization that produce a skin resistant to abrasion and water loss.
  • Explain the effects of ultraviolet radiation on the skin.
  • Describe the glands of the skin, their secretions and the functions of these secretions, including surface film (acid mantle).
  • Describe the way in which the integumentary system helps to regulate body temperature.
  • Describe the role of skin in sensation.
  • Explain the way in which skin responds to injuries and repairs itself.

8.  Analyze how components of the skeletal system function in the body


Criteria - Performance will be satisfactory when:

  • written, graphic or oral product or process identifies gross and microscopic structural components of the skeletal system
  • written, graphic or oral product or process correlates the structural components of the skeletal system with their functions
  • written, graphic or oral product or process identifies the major chemical components of the skeletal system
  • written, graphic or oral product or process illustrates the relationships among the components of the skeletal system
  • written, graphic or oral product or process summarizes the functions of the skeletal system

Learning Objectives

  • Describe the functions of the skeletal system.
  • Describe the composition and organization of bone matrix.
  • List the three types of bone cells and their functions.
  • Give examples of each bone classification, according to their shape.
  • Describe how the features that characterize spongy and compact bones impact their function.
  • Describe bone growth.
  • Explain the role of bone in calcium homeostasis.
  • Explain how and when bone remodeling occurs.
  • Describe the different types of joints and how they work.
  • Apply movement terminology to joint functions.
  • Identify the components and functions of the axial and appendicular skeleton.
  • Relate the major landmarks on individual bones of the skeleton to their function.
  • Discuss the process of skull development.
  • Identify the differences in structure and function of the various vertebrae.
  • Describe the skeletal differences between males and females.

9.  Analyze how components of the muscular system function in the body


Criteria - Performance will be satisfactory when:

  • written, graphic or oral product or process identifies the gross and microscopic structural components of the muscular system
  • written, graphic or oral product or process correlates the structural components of the muscular system with their functions
  • written, graphic or oral product or process identifies the major muscles and their functions
  • written, graphic or oral product or process illustrates the relationships among the components of the muscular system
  • written, graphic or oral product or process summarizes the functions of the muscular system

Learning Objectives

  • Describe the characteristics and functions of muscular tissue.
  • Explain the organization of muscle at the tissue level.
  • Distinguish among the different types of muscle contractions.
  • Relate types of muscle fibers to muscular performance.
  • Identify the major human skeletal muscles and their actions.
  • Define origin, insertion, agonist and antagonist, prime mover and synergist.

10.  Analyze how components of the nervous system function in the body


Criteria - Performance will be satisfactory when:

  • written, graphic or oral product or process identifies the gross and microscopic structural components of the nervous system
  • written, graphic or oral product or process correlates the structural components of the nervous system with their functions
  • written, graphic or oral product or process correlates cranial nerves to their respective physiological functions
  • written, graphic or oral product or process relates higher order brain functions to brain anatomy
  • written, graphic or oral product or process illustrates the relationships among the components of the nervous system
  • written, graphic or oral product or process summarizes the functions of the nervous system
  • written, graphic or oral product or process identifies the gross and microscopic structural components of the somatic and special senses
  • written, graphic or oral product or process correlates the structural components of the somatic and special senses with their functions

Learning Objectives

  • Describe the anatomical organization and general functions of the nervous system.
  • Distinguish between neurons and neuroglia by comparing their structures and functions.
  • Explain how the brain and spinal cord are protected.
  • Describe the major regions of the brain, their structure and functions.
  • Distinguish among the motor, sensory, and association areas of the cerebral cortex.
  • Discuss the structure and function of the spinal cord and spinal nerves.
  • Explain the role of white matter and gray matter in processing and relaying sensory and motor information.
  • Describe the process of a neural reflex.
  • Identify the principle sensory and motor pathways.
  • Differentiate between the somatic and autonomic divisions based on their respective structures and functions.
  • Identify the cranial nerves and their functions.
  • Contrast the functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system.
  • Discuss the receptors and processes involved in the senses of smell and taste.
  • Describe the structures of the ear and their roles in the process of hearing.
  • Describe the structures and processes involved in maintaining equilibrium.
  • Describe the structures of the eye and their functions.
  • Explain the mechanism of vision.

11.  Correlate the major organs of the endocrine system with their function in the body


Criteria - Performance will be satisfactory when:

  • written, graphic or oral product or process identifies the endocrine organs and their associated hormones
  • written, graphic or oral product or process identifies the general functions of the hormones
  • written, graphic or oral product or process illustrates the relationships among the components of the endocrine system
  • written, graphic or oral product or process summarizes the functions of the endocrine system

Learning Objectives

  • Explain the general functions of the endocrine system.
  • Differentiate between the two chemical families of hormones.
  • Explain the control mechanisms of hormonal secretion.
  • Identify the role of the hypothalamus in the endocrine system..
  • Describe the functions and effects of hyposecretion and hypersecretion of major hormones.
  • Compare the roles of the endocrine and nervous systems in maintaining homeostasis.
  • Describe the endocrine and nervous systems response to stress.

12.  Analyze how components of the cardiovascular system function in the body


Criteria - Performance will be satisfactory when:

  • written, graphic or oral product or process addresses major gross and microscopic structural components of the cardiovascular and lymphatic systems
  • written, graphic or oral product or process describes the flow of fluid through the systemic, pulmonary, and lymphatic circulations
  • written, graphic or oral product or process illustrates the functional relationships among the cardiovascular and lymphatic components
  • written, graphic or oral product or process describes the microscopic components of blood
  • written, graphic or oral product or process summarizes the functions of blood and each of its components
  • written, graphic or oral product or process describes the basis for bloodtyping
  • written, graphic or oral product or process the relationship between blood, tissue, and lymphatic fluids

Learning Objectives

  • Identify the names and locations of the major parts of the heart.
  • Explain the function(s) of each of the major parts of the heart.
  • Trace the pathway of the blood through the heart and lungs.
  • Compare the structures and functions of the major types of blood vessels.
  • Describe the mechanisms that aid in returning venous blood to the heart.
  • Describe the general characteristics and functions of blood.
  • Distinguish among the types and functions of the formed elements of the blood.
  • Explain the control of red blood cell production.
  • Explain the mechanisms that help to achieve hemostasis.
  • Define coagulation.
  • Describe the basis of blood typing, ABO, Rh compatibility and transfusions.
  • Describe the general characteristics and functions of the lymphatic system.
  • Describe the location of the major lymphatic pathways.
  • Describe the formation of tissue fluid and lymph.
  • Explain lymphatic circulation maintenance and the consequences of an obstruction.
  • Describe major functions of the lymph nodes, thymus and spleen.
  • Define immunity.
  • Relate the role of the lymphatic system to immunity.

13.  Analyze how components of the digestive system function in the body


Criteria - Performance will be satisfactory when:

  • written, graphic or oral product or process identifies the gross and microscopic structural components of the digestive system
  • written, graphic or oral product or process correlates the structural components of the digestive system with their functions
  • written, graphic or oral product or process describes the functions of major digestive enzymes
  • written, graphic or oral product or process written, graphic or oral product or process summarizes the functions of the digestive system

Learning Objectives

  • Describe the parts and functions of the digestive system organs.
  • Describe the functions of major digestive enzymes (ex. pepsin, amylase, ptyalin, and lipase)
  • Describe the mechanisms of swallowing, vomiting, and defecating.

14.  Analyze how components of the respiratory system function in the body


Criteria - Performance will be satisfactory when:

  • written, graphic or oral product or process identifies the gross and microscopic structural components of the respiratory system
  • written, graphic or oral product or process correlates the structural components of the respiratory system with their functions
  • written, graphic or oral product or process explains the mechanics of ventilation with reference to respiratory volumes and capacities
  • written, graphic or oral product or process summarizes the functions of the respiratory system

Learning Objectives

  • Describe the locations, structures and functions of the organs of the respiratory system.
  • Describe the mechanics of breathing.
  • Define respiratory air volumes and capacities.
  • Explain the mechanism of respiratory control and factors that may influence it.

15.  Analyze how the components of the urinary system function in the body


Criteria - Performance will be satisfactory when:

  • written, graphic or oral product or process identifies the gross and microscopic structural components of the urinary system
  • written, graphic or oral product or process correlates the structural components of the urinary system with their functions
  • written, graphic or oral product or process illustrates the relationships among the components of the urinary system
  • written, graphic or oral product or process summarizes the functions of the urinary system

Learning Objectives

  • Illustrate the gross anatomy of the urinary tract
  • Describe general functions of the urinary system and its components
  • Explain the functional processes of urine formation, including filtration, reabsorption, secretion, and excretion

16.  Analyze how components of the reproductive systems function in the body


Criteria - Performance will be satisfactory when:

  • written, graphic or oral product or process identifies the gross and microscopic structural components of the male and female reproductive systems
  • written, graphic or oral product or process correlates the structural components of the male and female reproductive system with their functions
  • written, graphic or oral product or process identifies the secretions of the male and female reproductive systems and their functions
  • written, graphic or oral product or process summarizes the functions of the reproductive systems

Learning Objectives

  • Describe the parts and general functions of the male and female reproductive system.
  • Explain the way in which hormones control the activities of the reproductive organs and the development of secondary sexual characteristics.
  • Describe the similarities between the male and female reproductive system.
  • Explain the diploid and haploid cycle in human reproduction.

17.  Use appropriate laboratory methods and safety precautions


Criteria - Performance will be satisfactory when:

  • you identify hazards and safety equipment in the lab
  • you select appropriate personal protective equipment
  • you follow all laboratory practice expectations of the college

Learning Objectives